🍒 Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin - Wikipedia

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As time passed, Ho-Chunk women started to wear more contemporary clothing due to the influence of boarding schools and the Winnebago Mission Church.


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Facts for Kids: Ho-chunk Indians (Winnebagos)
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ho-chunk | Native american clothing, Native american dress, Native american women
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Aho! Welcome, visitors to the Ho-Chunk Nation. We are legendary and have been on these lands for over three ice ages. Learn more about our nation here.


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Ho-Chunk, a Siouan-speaking North American Indian people who lived in what is now eastern Wisconsin when encountered in by explorer Jean Nicolet.


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The typical style of the Hochunk people was basic. Men of the tribe wore breechclout and leggings, and sometimes a shirt. Both sexes wore moccasins or​.


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t w e lv e “Citizen's Clothing” Reconstruction, Ho-Chunk Persistence, and the Politics of Dress Stephen Kantrowitz Did clothes make the citizen? In the early.


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Aho! Welcome, visitors to the Ho-Chunk Nation. We are legendary and have been on these lands for over three ice ages. Learn more about our nation here.


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The Ho-Chunk, also known as Hoocągra or Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking Native They used most parts of the game for tools, binding, clothing, and coverings for dwellings. They were responsible for the survival of the families, caring for.


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They also tanned the hides to make clothing and storage bags. Ho-Chunk men were hunters as well as warriors in times of conflict. As hunters, they would catch​.


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Men's Clothing. There were 3 occasions that special clothing was used at: 1. War ceremonies. 2. Religious ceremonies. 3. Dance ceremonies. A breechclout-.


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Oct 6, - Explore Trista Free's board "hochunk applique things" on Pinterest. History of American Indian Ribbonwork Native American Clothing, Native.


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Before decorating birchbark boxes, women soaked the quills in water until they were soft, left them unflattened, and then used an awl to pierce small holes in the bark and inserted the points through the holes. During early periods, large beads suitable for necklaces were available, and in the nineteenth century, much smaller beads suited to embroidery were also widely sold and adapted to quillwork or painted designs which had been used to decorate clothing, bags, and other items made of leather or cloth. More recently, silk ribbons have given way to bolt silk, nylon, and rayon. Designs were made by attaching the quills to deerskin with sinew thread crossing over the quill. Using scissors, women cut designs from one color of silk, sewed them onto a panel of another color, and then sewed this, as a decorative border, to a broadcloth garment. The edges formed flaps, about two inches wide at the top to around six inches at the bottom, and these were cut into fringes. Otterskin turbans were sometimes decorated with beads and ribbons, and worn with eagle plumes. During the midth century, ribbonwork died out, but is now undergoing a resurgence as women adapt the use of sewing machines to create traditional and innovative designs for traditional clothing worn at powwows and other special occasions. Before the advent of Europeans, metalworking by Great Lakes tribes was confined to working native copper.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} It was embellished with a single eagle feather, the quill end swiveling in a bone socket attached to the center of the roach, and the feather swung freely as the man moved. Quills were also woven on looms to make belts, tumplines, and decorative strips that were later applied to clothing. Other otterskin turbans were made by sewing the skin into a wide tube. The southern tribes used more stylized designs which emphasize bilateral symmetry, designs outlined in a contrasting color usually white , and greater use of geometric designs. Moose hair could sometimes replace the deer hair and, on the Prairies where porcupines were not found, turkey beards were substituted for porcupine hair. Because the natural and dyed colors of the quills were generally light, quillwork designs were most striking on darker materials, and leather used for quill-decorated bags and moccasins was often dyed a dark brown with juice from butternut husks. For work, especially in warm weather, a long, tanned deerskin shirt was worn. Earlier bead embroidery was done with sinew from either the deer or moose. The blind stitch, one in which the threads are hidden, was used to sew the panel onto the broadcloth. Bead embroidery became popular on clothing and on bags of various types, especially bandolier bags, which were worn as decorative accessories on dress occasions. For ceremonial occasions, particularly in times of war, a roach was worn. This was particularly effective in the cross-stitch, which resulted in an X-shaped thread pattern, and in the herringbone stitch. Deerskin leggings fell from the knees to the ankles and were fastened just below the knee with a thong or band. The earliest loom was the bow loom, a bent stick with doubled-up birchbark heddles attached to each end to hold the warp threads in place. Rows of the shorter tail hair of deer, usually dyed red, were combined with rows of the longer white guard-hairs from porcupines. In more recent times, the roach was held on the head by a headband mount made of strap leather. Women wore their hair in a single braid falling down their backs. The flounces could be decorated with narrow bands of silk ribbon and dozens of small German silver brooches. Native women cut patterns from silk and fold, tuck, and sew them as decoration onto woolen cloth garments. Later, the panels were stitched on with the sewing machine. The earliest ribbonwork was done with silk ribbon. A bone "roach spreader" ran through the top-center of the headdress and forced the stiff hair upward and outward to give it a brush-like effect. The open edges were sewn together to form a tube which was wider at the hip end but gradually narrowed as it reached the ankle. These bags may have been derived from the bandolier or bullet pouch worn over one shoulder by the United States military or may have evolved from similar bags worn in prehistoric times. This style was preferred by the Menominee. Most early bead and quill designs were geometric or soft curves. There were three styles of headdress. For instance, Ojibwe bead embroidery is quite realistic and some leaves and flowers can be identified by species and have many details such as leaf veining. The upper portion was folded outward over a belt. For special occasions, much more elaborate clothing was worn. The points were trimmed and bent back against the bark to hold them in place. However, these designs did not entirely replace earlier designs, and geometric designs such as the white bead border called "otter tail" have continued into modern times. Leggings were made by folding a rectangular piece of deerskin lengthwise down the center. Over the shoulders, a robe -- a piece of silk appliqued or beaded broadcloth the size of a small blanket -- was worn like a cape. Sometimes cloth was substituted for deerskin, but both survived into modern times. On dress occasions, loom-beaded bands or garters were fastened around the leggings below the knees. To decorate items with beadwork, women used both loom and embroidery techniques. This flap was often decorated with quillwork. For everyday wear, women wore simple cotton dresses or wool skirts and cotton blouses. Glass beads became available after contact with Europeans. After contact with Euroamericans, cotton cloth and thick wool cloth called broadcloth became the prime material for women's clothing. Silk was rarely appliqued to deerskin. Porcupine quills were also stitched on birchbark boxes in geometric and floral designs. With the switch to cloth, beads and ribbonwork were used more and more as decoration. On ceremonial occasions, turbans of otter hide were worn. Despite changes in the use of cloth for larger garments, moccasins were still traditionally made of deerskin decorated with beads or ribbonwork. Beads were strung on a thread and laid in position on the cloth or hide, with a second thread crossing over the first, usually after two or three beads, and then passed through or into the hide to hold the beads firmly in place. Pipestems were also wrapped or bound with quillwork. After contact with Europeans, cloth was increasingly substituted for deerskin and, in the early 20th century, a pair of square panels or aprons worn front and back replaced the breechclout. Long, narrow streamers of quillwork or loomed beadwork were attached to the clubbed hair and hung nearly to the ground, swaying as the woman walked or danced. Deerskin robes were worn in cold weather. Over these, women wore loose blouses made of printed cotton cloth which had deep flounces or ruffles over the chest. For bead embroidery, the "spot" or "overlay" stitch was used. By creating strips of woven beadwork with looms, Woodland Indian women produced belts, garters, headbands, necklaces, and decorative bands to be fastened onto deerskin or cloth. For embroidery, the quills were moistened in the mouth and flattened by being pulled out between the teeth or with special bone flatteners. Quillwork -- embroidery with porcupine quills -- is an art found only in North America and was part of the traditional decorative repertoire of Great Lakes Indian women. These materials were secured at trading posts or reservation stores. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}In contrast to the stiff, rawhide sole of the Plains moccasin, the sole of the Woodland moccasin was soft, both sole and sides consisting of a single piece of deerskin with a seam up the back. Beads made in Venice, and later in what was then Czechoslovakia, were commonly available at trading posts and reservations stores. Originally, the skirt consisted of a square piece of deerskin, but in postcontact times, broadcloth was wrapped around the body, meeting in the front. Long, full deerskin dresses, reaching to the ankles, with fringed sleeves and fringe at the bottom were a relatively recent innovation simulating White women's dress of the late 19th century. For Indian women in the Great Lakes, the basic garment was a sleeveless dress made of two deerskins, one for the front and one for the back, sewn together at the shoulders and belted. A lock of hair was then pushed through a hole in the roach and securely tied. However, some designs are very ornate and combine oak leaves, grapes, and wild roses on one stem. Moccasins completed the costume. Dyed porcupine quills were sewn with sinew onto deerskin clothing, knife sheaths, and medicine bags. Among all Woodland Indians, both sexes wore the same tribal style of moccasin, except for the Ho-Chunk, who had one type with a square front which was worn only by women. The second variation had a much smaller vamp, also puckered, but with a central seam running below the vamp and to the toe. The quills could not be pierced or they would split. The oldest and most traditional style worn by Great Lakes tribes was made with a central puckered seam running down the upper front and over the top of the foot. While ribbonwork was found mostly on women's skirts and shoulder robes, it was also used to decorate men's leggings, moccasins, and cradleboard wrappers. In historic times, beads were strung on silk, linen, or cotton thread with a long, fine, steel needle. While loom work is difficult to distinguish from tribe to tribe, quill and bead embroidery has variations and distinctive traits, including favorite colors, which aid in identification. The breechclout was a strip of deerskin, about 18 inches by four feet, which was passed between the legs and up and over a thong or belt, leaving flaps in the front and back. In historic times, ribbons were often intertwined in the braid, and a comb made of German silver was added for further decoration. Traditionally, quills were dyed with native vegetable dyes, but following contact with Europeans, quills could be dyed by boiling them with non-colorfast cloth, or in the 19th and 20th centuries, with commercial dyes. Both floral and geometric designs were worked in this fashion. Only the vamps and cuffs were decorated with quillwork or beadwork. In one style, the whole otter skin was used, the head being brought around in a circle and attached near the base of the tail while the tail itself flapped out on one side. There are early historical records of deerskin shirts, some of which were dyed brown with the juice of butternut husks, but these were probably the result of White influence. Since sinew is rather scratchy, it was undesirable for stitches to show on the inside, so the sinew was threaded inside the skin and did not actually pass through the deerskin. Women sometimes sewed the design down with silk thread in a contrasting color. As compared to quillwork, the use of beads was both a labor-saving method and allowed a much wider color selection, and Native women used these opportunities to develop intricate designs for clothing and other items. True floral designs are thought to have been adopted from early Europeans, particularly the French, and have been made popularly by Indian women for at least years. For Great Lakes Indian men, basic attire included a breechclout, leggings, and moccasins, all of tanned deerskin. Since the pouches of bandolier bags were often sewn shut, they were as much a badge of status as a useful bag. Although geometric designs were used to a considerable extent, the majority were curvilinear or floral. This was worn over an undershirt of woven nettle fiber. When it was not being worn, the roach was folded carefully and wrapped over a cylindrical stick to keep its shape and prevent the hairs from being broken. At times, colorful yarn sashes were wound around the head like a turban, and feathers were often added.